when used in the medical area , chemical processing, domestic and industrial water supply,
fire fighting , heating and cooling fluids, food and beverages, petro-chemical products, pharmaceutical products, sewage
and effluents etc.
when used for high pressure oil and water for brakes, servo
mechanisms, hydraulic motors, and aeroplane controls
When used for descaling plant , high pressure water jetting ,
concrete cutting etc..
Below are identified various types of positive displacement pumps with notes identifying
The gear pump is used for fluid transfer and power transfer and process duties. The gear
pump is widely used in the agricultural and mobile vehicle industry for hydraulic
transmission systems. The pump can be used for transferring a wide variety
of fluids depending on the materials of construction.
The pump includes two gears one gear is driven by the prime mover. The pump
bearings are generally provided with internal bearings and packed glands or mechanical
seals. The most popular gear types are straight spur. These can be
noisy and subject to vibration if they are not manufactured to high standards.
Helical gears can be used to minimise vibration but high side loads result.
The used of double helical gears to eliminate side loads results in expensive costly units.
These pumps are reliable low cost units which can be run for long periods if operated correctly. They have good high pressure
operating characteristics. Close tolerances are required between the internal components for the pump
to operate effectively
The gear pump has moderate efficiency and it not recommended for handling suspended solids. Because the gears
are in contact the fluid can be highly sheared as it is transferred.
These pumps can transfer fluids at reasonable flow rates at developed heads of up to 200 bar. For pressures
above 50 bar the pumps have to be specially designed with hydraulic balancing. These pumps have moderate self priming capabilities
The internal gear pump has similar characteristics to the external gear pump. The pump has improved suction
and delivery characteristics and is smoother in operation. The pump is based on an external gear located within and meshing with a
larger internal gear. A crescent vane is included to seperate the inlet volume from the discharge volume between the two gears.
Note: Gerotor pumps very similar to internal gear pumps without the vane . The operation of tyhe gerotor pump is similar to that of an internal gear pump. The inner gear rotor (gerotor element) is power driven and draws the outer gear rotor around as they mesh together. This forms the inlet and outlet discharge pumping chambers between the rotor lobes. The tips of the inner and the outer lobes make contact to seal the pumping chambers from each other. The inner gear has one tooth less than the outer gear, and the volumetric displacement is determined by the space formed by the extra tooth in the outer gear.
This pump is based on two parallel rotors located within a shaped case.
The rotors include a number of lobes these are arranged such that as the rotors are
rotated they contain spaces which increase and reduce in volume.
Fluid enters these spaces through the inlet connection and is trapped as the rotors
rotate. The fluid is compressed and forced out of the discharge connection
as the rotor continues to rotate. This pump is effectively a development of
the external gear pump.The rotors are synchronised by external timing gears
and therefore the internal contact between the lobes is a sealing contact and not a
driving contact. The rotors need not actually contact.Various
shapes of rotor are used, the tri-lobe rotor is probable the most popular. The
lower the number of lobes the better the pump is for handling viscous and solids laden
fluids. The rotor can be made from a wide selection of materials from exotic
steel to synthetic rubber-with steel internal support. When soft rotors are
used this type of pump can achieve high levels of volumetic efficiency.
This type of pump includes for relatively low internal fluid velocities with low level of shear. The resulting flow
includes some level of pulsation. The pump can run dry, subject to the design of the bearings and the pump is
self priming especially if the rotors are wetted. As the pump has clean internal surface with few crevices the pump can be
used for hygiene related applications.
The pump can transfer fluid at flowrates up to 500 m3/hr (200 dia pump) and can deliver total heads
of 20 bar.
The vane pump includes a ring mounted inside a cylindrical case The ring
includes a number of radial slots in which are located sliding vanes. The ring
is mounted eccentric to the case and the vanes are designed to press against the inside
wall of the case. The vanes are forced against the wall by hydraulic pressure or
spring force or due the the centrifugal force resulting as the ring is rotated.
The prime mover is use to rotate the ring and liquid flow into compartments between the
vanes and the case inner circumference. As the ring rotates the liquid is
trapped in the compartment and is then compressed and forced out through the discharge
The older designs of vane pump are based on an eccentric ring as described above . These are not hydraulically
balanced and are thus limited in the hydraulic presssure which can be developed. More modern designs include
for an elliptical inner ring which results in two pressure cycle per revolution. These pumps can develop much
higher pressures at high rotational speeds.
The vanes outer edges are subject to continuous wear and the vanes need to be replaced
after periods of continuous use. Modern pumps are design for convenient
maintenance by having the internal components design as cartidges.
The hydraulic circuit based on these pumps should include a relief valve.
This design of pump include a large number of mechanical parts related to its duty.
In transfer duties these pumps can develop high suction heads. They are smooth
operating and have higher efficiency compared to gear pumps.
They can handle suspended non-abrasive solids. Certain designs can
tolerate significant vane wear. (carbon vanes) This type of pump when pumping hydraulic oil can develop head of 200 barg.
These pumps are used in the chemical process industry and in the oil industry for applications on oil rigs.
They are used for pumping fuel oil, lubrication oil, sea water, paints etc...
For multi-screw pumps the fluid is transferred under the action of a number of screws meshed together in a casing provided
with a channels to suit the screws. In twin screw pumps timing gears are using to control the relative
motion of the screws. In pumps with more than two screws a single central screw causes the complimentary
rotation of the adjacent screws.
Multiple screw pumps have the following characteristics.
These pumps are relatively expensive and are not conveniently maintainable.
These pumps can provide flowrates of up to 2000 m3/h and can deliver heads of up to
This pump is based on a elastomeric tube through which the process fluid is forced.
The fluid is forced along the tube by the action of a number of lobes
or rollers which progressively squeeze along the length of the tube.
The tube should be closed by at least one lobe/roller at throughout the pumping cycle.
The squeezing items are generally located on the rotating support which
is drivern by a variable speed drive. This system includes no glands and
is very spooth operating.
The flowrate of the pump is related directly to the diameter of the tube and the the speed
of rotation of the drive. The pump duty is limited by the tube material of construction.
The suction capabilities are related to the tubes ability to rapidly expand after the compression cycle.
This pump can generate heads of up to 5m at flows of up to 10 m3/hr.
The flexible impeller pump is low cost unit comprising of one moving parts.. The performance of this pump is directly
related to the material and design of the flexible impeller material. Neoprene is often used as a vane material.
This pump is useful for low intermittent duties and has a short life between maintenance if used on continous duty cycle. High internal fricton
and low suction capabilities.
This type of pump can deliver flows up to 25 m3 hr at heads of up to 4 bar.
This highly innovative pump includes a stator (case) having a two start helical cavity which
mates with the rotor which rotates and creates and internal void which progresses along the
stator. The stator is normally made from an elastomeric material such as nitrile.
The rotor material is selected for the process duty includes carbon steel and
stainless steel. The stator is often coated with wear-restant metal.
The Helical Rotor pump can be supplied as a multi-stage configuration. The head
generated at each stage is about 5 bar maximum. The pump can supply fluid at
flow ranges up to 150 m3 /hr.
This pump can handle a vast range of fluids at a wide range of viscosities and with high
level of suspended solid and entrained gases. The pump is self priming and
the flow is continuous and smooth. The is simple in design with no valves and
to timing gears.
This general type of pump includes a number of variations some of which are described below.
The pumps are extensively used for power transfer applications in the off shore ,
power transmission , agricultural, aerospace and construction industries,.. to list just a few.
All of these pumps work on a similar principle.
The pump includes a block with a number of symetrically arranged cylindrical
pistons around a common centre line. The pistons are caused reciprocate in and
out under the action of a Separate fixed or rotating plate (axial Pistons) or and eccentric bearing ring (radial pump)
or some other mechanical feature. Each piston is interfaced with the inlet and
outlet port via a special valve arrangement such that as it moves out of its cyclinder it draws
fluid in and as it moves back it pushes the fluid out. The pumps are
engineered to allow rotational speeds from less the 1 RPM to over 25,000RPM.
Radial Piston pumps include a rotating cylinder containing equally spaced radial pistons
arranged radial around the cylinder centre line. A springs pushes the pistons
against the inner surface of an encircling stationay ring mounted eccentric to the cylinder.
The pistons draw in fluid during half a revolution and drive fluid out
during the other half. The greater the ring eccentricity the longer the pistons stroke
and the more fluid they transfer.
Swashplate pumps have a rotating cylinder containing parallel pistons arranged radially around the cylinder centre line.
A spring pushes the pistons against a stationary swash plate located at one end of the cylinder ,
which sits at an angle to the cylinder. The pistons draw in fluid during half a revolution and drive fluid out
during the other half. The greater the swashplate angle relative to the cylinder centre line the further the
longer the pistons stroke and the more fluid they transfer.
This pump includes a stationary piston block containing a number parallel pistons arranged radially
around the block centre(at least five). The end of each piston is forced against a rotating
wobble plate by springs. The wobble plate is shaped with varying thickness around its centre line and thus as it rotates
it causes the pistons to reciprocate at a fixed stroke.
The pistons draw in fluid from the cavity during half a revolution and drive fluid out
at the rear of the pump during the other half. The fluid flow is controlled
using non-return valves for each piston.
These pumps can generate pressures of up to 700 bar.
Bent axis piston pumps have a rotating cylinder containing parallel pistons arranged radially
around the cylinder centre line. The cylinder is driven by an shaft which is arranged at an
angle to the cylinder axis. the shaft includes a flange with a mechanical connection to each
piston. As the shaft rotates the pistons are made to reciprocate over a stroke
based on the relative angle of the shaft and cylinder.