More details on Mechanism design are to be found in the links below the table
Reciprocating straight line motion is most generally completed using pneumatic, hydraulic, and electric linear actuators. Reciprocating motion is also achieved using rack and pinion, and cams. Historically a number of machines have been operated very successfully using specially developed mechanisms.
Scotch Yoke Mechanism
The mechanism below achieves reciprocating motion of the yoke (d) as the arm (b)is rotated. This mechanism delivers harmonic motion.
Offset Slider Crank
The offset slider crank produces a (working stroke time/return stroke time) ratio greater than unity based on the rotation direction and degree of offset. With no offset and a relatively long connecting link the ratio is unity. There is an advantage with having a faster return stroke in that this motion does no useful work and takes up valuable time.
The Shaper Mechanism
Variations of this mechanism were universally used for providing the cutting motion of shaping machines. Again this mechanism has the advantage of a quick return cycle. This mechanism is a derivation of the offset slider mechanism..
Whitworth Quick Return Mechanism
This is another variation of the shaper mechanism providing slightly different motion characteristics and a different geometry.