Roymech engineering encyclopedia

Manufacturing Processes



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Manufacturing Methods & Techniques


Castings & Forgings

Casting and forging are two distinct manufacturing processes used to shape metal into desired forms.

Casting:
Casting involves pouring molten metal into a mold, where it solidifies into the desired shape. The mold can be made of various materials like sand, metal, or ceramic. Commonly used in industries like automotive, aerospace, and construction for components like engine blocks, pipes, and structural parts.
Forging:
Forging involves shaping metal through applying localized compressive forces using either hammering, pressing, or rolling. Widely employed in manufacturing critical components like gears, crankshafts, connecting rods, and high-strength applications in aerospace and defense.

Castings & Forgings

Joining

Joining metals is a crucial aspect of manufacturing, allowing for the creation of complex structures and products.

Welding:
Welding involves melting the base metals and adding a filler material (if necessary) to create a permanent bond upon solidification. Heat is typically generated using electricity or a gas flame.
Brazing & Soldering:
Brazing and soldering involve joining metals by melting a filler material (solder or brazing alloy) with a lower melting point than the base metals, which then solidifies to form the joint.
Mechanical Fastenings
Mechanical fastening involves joining metals using mechanical methods such as bolts, screws, rivets, or nuts and bolts.

Joining

Machining

Machining is a manufacturing process that involves removing material from a workpiece to create the desired shape, size, and surface finish. Some common machining processes include:

Drilling:
Drilling creates holes in a workpiece using a rotating cutting tool called a drill bit. Drilling can be performed manually or using automated drilling machines.
Milling
Milling involves rotating a multi-point cutting tool to remove material from the surface of a workpiece. This process is highly versatile and can be used to create a wide range of shapes, slots, and features.
Turning
In turning, a workpiece rotates while a single-point cutting tool removes material to create cylindrical shapes. This process is typically used for producing shafts, rods, and other cylindrical components. 

Machining


Painting & Galvanising

Painting and galvanizing are surface finishing processes used to protect metal parts from corrosion, enhance their appearance, and provide other functional properties. Each method has its own advantages, applications, and considerations:

Galvanising
Galvanising involves coating the surface of a metal (usually steel or iron) with a layer of zinc to protect it from corrosion. The most common method of galvanising is hot-dip galvanising, where the metal part is immersed in a bath of molten zinc.
Painting
Painting involves applying a liquid paint or coating onto the surface of a metal part using various methods such as spraying, brushing, or dipping. The paint forms a protective layer over the metal surface.

Painting & Galvanising

Surface Engineering

Surface engineering refers to the application of various techniques to modify the surface properties of materials while leaving their bulk properties unchanged. This discipline plays a crucial role in enhancing the performance, durability, and functionality of materials in various applications. Surface engineering techniques are employed to improve properties such as hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, friction reduction, and biocompatibility.
Some common surface engineering techniques include:

Coatings:
Applying thin layers of materials onto the surface of a substrate to modify its properties.
Surface Texturing
Creating micro or nano-scale surface features to achieve specific properties like reduced friction, improved lubrication, or enhanced adhesion.
Surface engineering finds applications across various industries, including automotive, aerospace, electronics, medical devices, and manufacturing.

Surface Engineering

Welding

Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, typically metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering. Welding creates a strong, permanent bond between two or more materials, allowing them to function as a single, unified structure. There many different welding techniques listed below:

Arc Welding

Cold Welding

Diffusion Welding

Electron Beam Welding

Gas Welding

Plasma Arc Welding

Resistance Welding

Welding