More details on Spring design are to be found in the links below the table.
Leaf Springs are widely used in the automobile and railway industries
for suspension applications. The simplest variation is the single beam
spring. The more normal application is the laminated (multiple)
leaf spring which provides a more efficient stress distribution..
Laminated leaf springs have the following characteristics
There are two primary variations the cantilever spring and the simply supported beam..
Simply supported spring
Multiple leaf springs
Considering a cantilever type leaf spring, the stress distribution is related to the distance from the load point.
σ = 6Fx / bt2
If (x/b) is constant along beam, of constant thickness t, then the stress level will be constant and the most efficient spring will result. If x/b is constant then a triangular shaped spring results. The multileaf spring is designed to provide a constant stress level along the spring length as it is designed to be equivalent to a triangular spring as shown below.
For this spring the maximum stress( which ideally is constant along the spring) is and the stiffness are as follows..
These equations apply to the quarter elliptic spring as shown below
The relevant equations for the semi-elliptic spring as shown below are