Roymech engineering encyclopedia

Material Properties of Metals



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Ferrous Metals and Non Ferrous Metals


Ferrous Metals and Alloys

Ferrous Metals and Alloys

Ferrous metals are those that contain iron as their principal element. They are known for their strength and durability, which makes them essential in various industrial and construction applications. Here are some key points about ferrous metals:

Types of Ferrous Metals
Steel:
Carbon Steel: Contains varying amounts of carbon. The higher the carbon content, the harder and stronger the steel.
Alloy Steel: Mixed with other elements such as chromium, nickel, and tungsten to improve certain properties.
Stainless Steel: Contains at least 10.5% chromium, making it highly resistant to corrosion.
Cast Iron:
Known for its excellent castability, wear resistance, and compressive strength. Types include gray iron, ductile iron, and white iron.
Wrought Iron:
Nearly pure iron with a very low carbon content. Characterized by its malleability and resistance to corrosion.

Properties of Ferrous Metals
Magnetic: Most ferrous metals are magnetic, which makes them useful in electrical applications and magnetic devices.
High Tensile Strength: They can withstand significant stress and strain.
Durability: These metals are known for their long-lasting nature.
Corrosion: Generally prone to rust when exposed to moisture, except for stainless steel and other specially treated alloys.

Ferrous Metals and Alloys
Non Ferrous Metals and Alloys

Non Ferrous Metals and Alloys

Non Ferrous metals are those that do not contain significant amounts iron as their principal element. They are known for their strength and durability, which makes them essential in various industrial and construction applications. Here are some key points about non ferrous metals (some of them):
Aluminum (Al)
Pure Aluminum: Lightweight, corrosion-resistant, and widely used in packaging, transportation, and construction.
Alloys:
Aluminum-Copper (2000 series): High strength and hardness, used in aerospace applications.
Aluminum-Magnesium (5000 series): Excellent corrosion resistance, used in marine environments.
Copper (Cu)
Pure Copper: Excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, used in electrical wiring and electronics.
Alloys:
Brass (Copper-Zinc): Corrosion-resistant and malleable, used in plumbing, musical instruments, and decorative items.
Bronze (Copper-Tin): Strong and corrosion-resistant, used in bearings, bushings, and marine hardware.
Properties of Non-Ferrous Alloys
Corrosion Resistance: Many non-ferrous alloys, like those of aluminum and copper, are highly resistant to corrosion.
Lightweight: Alloys such as aluminum and titanium are strong yet lightweight, making them ideal for aerospace and transportation.
Conductivity: Copper and its alloys are excellent conductors of electricity and heat.
Malleability and Ductility: Non-ferrous alloys are often more malleable and ductile than ferrous metals, facilitating easier manufacturing processes.

Non Ferrous Metals and Alloys